Last updated: 2018-03-14 15:21:04
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1. Summary

Last updated: 14/03/18

2. Introduction

Employment has a major positive impact on an individual’s long-term health and wellbeing as well as that of their family members.  It can influence social mobility, economic independence, housing, and income levels.

Unemployment, however, can be both a cause of and a result of ill health.  The negative effects of unemployment on health and wellbeing can be linked to poverty and low income levels.  Long-term unemployment; limiting illnesses; low paid, short-term and temporary employment; and low level skills can affect an individual’s ability to gain and sustain employment. 

The changing economic climate presents some challenges to gaining employment for specific age and population groups, for example, 18-24 year olds and people aged over 50 years, people who have recently been made redundant and may need to re-train to secure available employment opportunities, the attainment gaps prevalent in disadvantaged groups, difficulties accessing training and employment opportunities, and the insufficient number of flexible jobs.

Other JSNA topics this topic is closely linked to:




Ex-forces personnel



Physical disabilities

Learning disabilities


Last updated: 14/03/18

3. Data and Intelligence

Despite a positive downward trend in the number of job seekers over the past four years, there are still a large number of people who are not in work, but actively seeking it, particularly those from the most deprived areas of Stockton-on-Tees.

In September 2017 there were 3,810 people claiming Jobseekers Allowance or claiming Universal Credit whilst not in employment in Stockton-on-Tees. The Wards of Stockton Town Centre, Parkfield and Oxbridge, Mandale and Victoria, Newtown, Hardwick and Salters Lane and Billingham East together have more claimants than the other 21 Wards combined.

In Wards such as Ingleby Barwick West and Northern Parishes, less than 1% of working age people is claiming unemployment benefit whilst in Stockton Town Centre more than 10% of working age people claim unemployment benefit.

Males are more likely to claim unemployment benefit with 4.1% of working age males in the Borough making up the claimant count compared to 2.1% of working age females. 

3.1% of working age residents in Stockton-on-Tees claim unemployment benefit, which is lower than the wider Tees Valley (4.0%), similar to the North East figure of 3.2% but higher than the UK average of 1.9%.


Despite a downward trend in the number of people claiming out of work benefits there are still a significant number of people of working age who are reliant on benefits due to illness, disability or caring responsibilities, particularly in the most deprived areas.


Jobseeker’s Allowance claimants and those people claiming Universal Credit but seeking work are not the only people claiming an ‘out-of-work’ benefit.  Many people of working age in Stockton-on-Tees are reliant on benefit payments yet are not seeking work due to illness, disability, or a need to care for children or someone else. The numbers of claimants in these groups have reduced over the last 5 years, but remain high in deprived areas.

There is a high prevalence of ‘employment’ deprivation in certain areas of Stockton-on-Tees.

There is a strong correlation between the pattern of employment deprivation and other types of deprivation, such as those relating to ‘skills’, ‘income’ and ‘health’. 23% of Lower Super Output Areas (LSOAs) in Stockton-on-Tees are in the most deprived 10% nationally for the ‘employment’ domain.

The Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) includes an ‘employment’ domain, which highlights employment deprivation based on a score that looks at a range of indicators relating to benefit claimants.  Specifically:

  • Claimants of Jobseeker’s Allowance (both contribution-based and income-based) - women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64
  • Claimants of Employment and Support Allowance (both contribution-based and income-based) - women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64
  • Claimants of Incapacity Benefit - women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64
  • Claimants of Severe Disablement Allowance - women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64
  • Claimants of Carer’s Allowance - women aged 18-59 and men aged 18-64.


Despite a fall in the number of people reliant on housing benefit, there are still issues of low-pay and in-work poverty that need to be addressed.

It is not just people who are unemployed that require support. There are issues with low-pay and in-work poverty that also need to be addressed.  There are issues of long-term unemployment and people that face multiple and complex barriers to accessing employment. 

Anecdotally, an indicator of the income levels of residents is to consider those that are eligible to receive Housing Benefit and/or Council Tax support that are also in employment / self-employment (as these are means tested benefits).  At the end of the financial year 2016-2017 there were 2815 claimants in employment (including 488 self-employed), which equates to 3% of the working age population in employment that are in receipt of those benefits.

The number of people with no qualifications has reduced, with an increase in other qualification Levels, however the changing labour market will demand higher levels of skills and qualifications.  Therefore, there is a risk that those that are lower skilled may find it difficult to access the highly skilled occupations of the future.

The UKCES Working Futures model predicts that Tees Valley will have 133,000 jobs that will need filling between 2014-2024. This figure is made up of 17,000 new jobs and 116,000 replacement jobs. 

High qualifications / highly skilled occupations are making up an ever increasing share of total employment; with over half of the aforementioned 133,000 Tees Valley jobs predicted to require a Level 4 or above qualification.

In addition 45% of those jobs are projected to be highly skilled ‘managerial’, ‘professional’ or ‘associate professional and technical’ occupations. It is estimated that between 2014 and 2024 four in every ten jobs will require replacing, which is a significant future demand for skills in the local economy.


A tool that looks at supply and demand in the local labour market can be found here:


Of those people that are claiming Jobseekers Allowance a large proportion of them are seeking lower skilled occupations, which could be indicative of a misaligned labour market.

The ‘sought occupations’ of people on Jobseekers Allowance (JSA) are recorded and published by the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP).  Both nationally and locally there has been a reduction in JSA claimants over the last 5 or so years, but a stark rise in the number and proportion of claimants whose ‘usual’ or ‘sought’ occupation is recorded as ‘sales occupations’.  

In 2005 less than 10% of JSA claimants in Stockton had ‘sales occupations’ listed as their usual or sought occupation. The most common occupation classification was ‘Elementary Trades, Plant and Storage Related Occupations’; with more than a quarter of claimants listed as ‘in’ or ‘seeking’ this type of job. By October 2017 around 12% were ‘seeking’ or ‘in’ ‘Elementary Trades, Plant and Storage related Occupations’ whilst around 65% were seeking employment in ‘Sales Occupations’. This is shown in Figure 5.


An increase in job vacancies is also indicative of a misaligned labour market.

Many believe a lack of jobs is the main causal factor for high levels of claimant unemployment however vacancy information suggests an increasing demand for labour in Stockton-on-Tees.

Compared to the same period in 2016, Stockton-on-Tees has seen a 22% rise in job vacancies in 2017. Numbers increased from 2,067 in 2016 to 2,526 in 2017 (459 extra vacancies):

  • There has been a 103% increase in vacancies for ‘Administrative’ occupations, with numbers increasing from 159 to 322 (163 extra vacancies).
  • This is followed by a 46% increase in ‘Science, Research, Engineering and Technology Professionals’ with vacancies rising from 170 to 249 (79 extra vacancies).

Compared to the same period in 2014, Stockton has experienced the largest increase in vacancies across Tees Valley with a 73% rise and numbers increasing from 1,459 in 2014 to 2,526 in 2017 (1,067 extra vacancies).

  • There has been a 171% rise in vacancies for ‘Administrative’ occupations; with numbers increasing from 119 to 322 (203 extra vacancies).
  • This is followed by a 105% rise in vacancies for ‘Business and Public Service Associate Professionals’, with numbers rising from 117 to 240 (123 extra vacancies).

The Tees Valley ‘Education, Employment and Skills Plan’ was launched in December 2017 and states that “there are skills shortages across most of our key sectors, and employers cite a lack of skilled workers as their greatest barrier to growth”.

Research suggests that a young person who has 4 or more encounters with an employer is 86% less likely to be unemployed or not in education or training (NEET), and can earn up to 18% more during their career.

Labour market mismatches are not just related to those who do not have the skills and qualifications to carry out the jobs where there is a demand for specific skills.  When people study and gain qualifications that may not be needed in the local labour market or their current job they may be considered over-educated or under-utilised.


Teesside University is the most popular higher education destination for Stockton-on-Tees’ residents.  Of 1,855 Stockton-on-Tees’ residents that gained a graduate or post-graduate qualification in 2015-2016, 49% studied at Teesside University.

80% of graduates who lived in Stockton-on-Tees prior to starting higher education found employment or were due to start employment 6 months after completing their education.  Of these, 65% found employment within Tees Valley; with 33% finding employment in Stockton-on-Tees.                  

50% of Tees Valley students travelled outside Tees Valley for university in 2014-2015.  However, 61% of these students found employment in Tees Valley once they had graduated.

Looking more closely at the 61% who found employment within Tees Valley - Middlesbrough employed the largest amount of Tees Valley graduates at 22%, followed by Stockton-on-Tees at 17%. This is despite the Stockton-on-Tees’ labour market consisting of 38.0% more jobs than Middlesbrough.

Employment rates are lower for those people with disabilities and/or health conditions.

People with disabilities had an employment rate 31.3 percentage points lower than people without disabilities between April and July 2017.


Disabled people with multiple health conditions had lower employment rates than those with one health condition. People with one health condition had an employment rate of 60.8%. Disabled people with at least two health conditions had an employment rate of almost nine percentage points lower than those with one condition.


The type of health condition also had a large impact on the employment rate of disabled people. People with mental health conditions and learning difficulties had the lowest employment rates whilst those with disfigurements, hearing and sight problems, and digestive problems had higher employment rates.

For all health conditions people with disabilities had lower employment rates than those without disabilities.  The highest employment rate for a health condition group (severe disfigurements, skin conditions and allergies) was still 13.6 percentage points below the equivalent figure for non-disabled working age adults.


The public health outcomes relating to employment show some indicators that are worse compared to the England benchmark

The spinal chart on the following page contains a range of indicators from the Public Health Outcomes Framework relating to employment and shows the position in Stockton-on-Tees compared to national averages and other Local Authorities.

The headline unemployment rate is significantly below the national average as is the 2015 level of 16-18 year olds Not in Employment, Education or Training (NEET).

The Borough also scores relatively poorly for the level of unpaid carers, long-term claimants of Jobseeker’s Allowance and adults accessing mental health support in employment amongst other measures.

The Borough has a better score than national averages for homelessness amongst people aged 16-24, the gap in employment rate between those with a health condition and learning disability and the rest of the population, amongst other measures.

Last updated: 14/03/18

4. Which population groups are at risk and why?


Employment rates vary by age; with younger and older groups having lower rates of employment and full-time employment than those in the middle of the working-age range.  Reasons for economic inactivity amongst younger people include ‘study’ and ‘looking after family’, whilst older people are more likely to be economically inactive due to ill health or retirement.

Research suggests that although there has been some relative success in reducing the number of young people considered NEET at age 16 via the ‘raising the participation age’ there is almost a doubling in the subsequent year at age 17; a pattern which is repeated in each successive year.


Males are more likely to claim unemployment benefit; with 4.1% of working age males in the Borough making up the claimant count compared to 2.1% of working age females. 


Males are more likely to be in employment than females; with current employment rates in Stockton-on-Tees estimated at

  • 76.8% for males and
  •  68.5% for females.  

Males are more likely to work full time with


  • 88.7% of males in employment
  • compared to 57.6% of females. 

Males are more likely to be self-employed than females in Stockton-on-Tees; with

  • more than 13% of employed males classed as self##employed
  • compared to less than 10% of females .

Whilst there are a higher proportion of males in employment there are also a higher proportion claiming unemployment benefit

  • 4.1% of working age males
  • compared to 2.1% of working age females.

This is because there are a higher proportion of females not actively seeking work (economically inactive). 


  • 28.2% of females are estimated to be economically inactive
  • compared to 19.4% of males.

The most common reason for inactivity amongst women is that they are looking after family/home.

Free School Meals Status

The attainment of children who at some point have received ‘Free School Meals’ (FSM) is lower than other children. In Stockton-on-Tees in 2016 39% of FSM children achieved a Level 2 qualification in English and Maths by the age of 19, whilst for non-FSM children the rate was 71.8%.

In 2014/15 the estimated percentage of 15 year old pupils from state-funded and special schools who entered higher education by the age of 19 was 16% for FSM pupils and 42% for non-FSM pupils.


The higher qualification that a person holds the more likely it is that they would be employed, and the greater the likelihood that they would be earning more money for that work. Around 87% of people in Stockton-on-Tees that are qualified to NVQ Level 4 or higher are estimated to be in employment compared to 47% of those without any formal qualifications.

Mental health

In February 2010, 39% of Employment Support Allowance (ESA) claimants in Stockton-on-Tees were claiming due to ‘mental and behavioural disorders’.  In February 2017, this had risen to 49%; with 8,191 ESA claimants claiming for this reason. This mirrors the trend being seen nationally.


In the North East, 55% of people who are Pakistani/Bangladeshi are in employment compared to 71% of White British people. Nationally, in 2016, every ethnic minority (other than White ethnic minorities) had lower rates of employment than White British people.

Pakistani/Bangladeshi women have particularly low levels of employment with just 35% nationally in employment.


There is not a lot of information regarding the economic activity of ex-offenders, however, Government figures suggest only around a quarter of ex-offenders enter employment on release from prison and around 50% of people who leave prison re-offend within 12 months. 49% of prisoners suffer from anxiety and/or depression, 32% of prisoners report having a learning difficulty and/or disability, and 47% of prisoners are estimated to have no school qualifications, including GCSEs.

These factors and the difficulties faced by ex-offenders to secure employment means that employment levels amongst ex-offenders are likely to be particularly low.

Young Offenders

There were 366 offences in Stockton##on##Tees in the year ending March 2016 for people aged 10-17.  134 were either cautioned or sentenced by Youth Offending Teams. 11 people ended up in custody.
Anecdotally young people with convictions find it more difficult to access training and employment opportunities as their criminal record acts as a barrier to training providers and employers providing them with opportunities.

Looked After Children

Stockton-on-Tees has a higher rate of ‘Looked After’ children than the national average. In Stockton-on-Tees only 48% of care leavers that are now aged 19, 20 and 21 were in Employment, Education or Training.

People with Disabilities

What is commonly referred to as the ‘disability employment gap’ is the difference in the employment rate of people with disabilities and people without disabilities.  People with disabilities had an employment rate 31.3 percentage points lower than people without disabilities between April and July 2017.

The employment rate for men with disabilities is 50.0%, for women with disabilities the rate is 48.6%.

The North East had the lowest employment rate for disabled people across all English Regions.

People with Neurological Conditions

50% of people with muscle disease of working age are not in employment.

14% of people with epilepsy are actively looking for work compared to an unemployment rate of 8.8 % for all disabled people.

People with epilepsy are up to twice as likely as those without epilepsy to be at risk of unemployment.

Up to 80% of people with MS will be unemployed within 10 years of their diagnosis.

46% of people with Parkinson’s disease will be unemployed within 10 years of their diagnosis.

A third of migraine sufferers face difficulties or discrimination at work because of their condition.

The employment rate for people with Asperger's syndrome is 12%.

The prevalence of young people with an acquired traumatic brain disorder (TBI) is 24%-31.6%.

50,844 children and young people residing in Tees Valley are living with the hidden effect of a TBI.

Percentage of young people in custody with a TBI 65.1% to 72.1%.

48% of homeless young people had experienced a head injury.


Last updated: 24/05/18

5. Consultation and engagement

Issue number

1 = highest priority

Strategic Issue

1 & 4





30% of residents of Stockton-on-Tees surveyed by Ipsos Mori in 2015 mentioned job prospects as an important aspect of making somewhere a good place to live.

16% of residents surveyed in Stockton-on-Tees believed that their personal financial circumstances would get worse over the next 12 months, but of those residents that were workless, 27% answered this way.

The ‘Stockton Youth Employment Fund’ is a project that supports local employers by means of a grant to help them create new apprenticeship opportunities for Stockton-on-Tees’ residents aged 1-#24.

Young people were asked questions both before and 13 weeks after being on the initiative.  After 13 weeks there were more people answering “often” and “all the time” for every question. The increase in frequency of these answers is shown below and confirms the positive effect employment can have on health and wellbeing.

Consultation with professionals in the Stockton Borough Council’s Youth Offending Service and support organisations has revealed how previous convictions amongst young people can act as a barrier to training and employment as training providers and employers are reluctant to take on someone with a previous conviction.

This problem is not restricted to younger people as other support charities have commented on how historic offences are limiting future employment opportunities for ex-offenders.  The reduced opportunity to gain steady employment and gain an increased income increases the risk of re##offending and is an example of a negative feedback loop that needs to be broken.

Anecdotally, an indicator of the income levels of residents is to consider those that are eligible to receive Housing Benefit and/or Council Tax support that are also in employment / self##employment (as these are means tested benefits).  Consultation with Stockton Borough Council’s Housing Benefit and Council Tax teams revealed that at the end of the financial year 2016-2017 there were 2815 claimants in employment (including 488 self##employed), which equates to 3% of all those in employment. 


28% of residents of Stockton##on##Tees surveyed by Ipsos Mori in 2015 cited ‘job prospects’ as an area that needed improvement locally.  A similar study by Ipsos Mori in 2014 nationally had a comparable response; with 30% saying ‘job prospects needed to improve’.



16% of Stockton-on-Tees’ employers stated they had a member of staff not fully proficient (England average = 14%).

33% of survey respondents stated they had a member of staff who was under##utilised (had a role below the level they were qualified to work at) (England average = 30%).



In the UKCES Employer Perspectives Survey (2014), 21% of Tees Valley survey respondents stated they currently employ an apprentice compared to 15% nationally whilst 41% stated they intend to recruit and apprentices in the future compared to 35% nationally.

From ‘Key Facts about Apprenticeships’ information (Gov.uk):

  • Nearly all apprentices feel that they acquire or improve their skills as a direct result of their apprenticeship.
  • 89% of apprentices are satisfied with their apprenticeship; 97% of apprentices said their ability to do the job had improved, and 92% of apprentices said their career prospects had improved.
  • Nearly 9 out of 10 (89%) apprentices were satisfied with their apprenticeship overall, and 97% of apprentices said their ability to do the job had improved.
  • The majority (92%) of apprentices in work felt that their apprenticeship had had a positive impact on their career.
  • 87% of employers said they were satisfied with the programme, 76% say that productivity has improved and 75% reported that apprenticeships improved the quality of their product or service.


Last updated: 14/03/18

6. Strategic issues

Issue number

1 = highest priority

Strategic Issue


Barriers to work and high unemployment in deprived areas
The more deprived areas of the Borough have low levels of employment, and there is a strong correlation between employment deprivation and other types of deprivation, e.g. lower incomes, poorer health outcomes, and lower skills levels. 

Many people in Stockton-on-Tees are reliant on benefit payments yet are not seeking work due to a range of barriers including illness, disability, a need to care for another person, lack of transport, lower level skills, confidence reduction and many other issues.




Lack of Sustainable jobs and factors limiting labour demand

The jobs market has and will continue to change.

Trends include

  • An increased requirement for higher level skills and qualifications in the future labour market.
  • A reduction in some occupations such as sales, service, plant, process, machine operation and elementary occupations.
  • An increase in zero hours contracts and part time work.

These trends are likely to result in increased competition for sustainable jobs and an increase in the number of people lacking the skills to gain employment (see Section 3) or working in roles where they would prefer more hours or set hours.

Under-employment represents people that are not working the amount of hours they want to or feeling that they have skills/qualifications that are either under##utilised in their current role, or that they can’t access the jobs they are qualified for due to specific barriers.

The rise of zero hour contracts and part##time employment has left some people working in jobs where they would prefer more hours or more sustainable work.

Another form of under##employment is a lack of graduate opportunities in the local labour market so university leavers potentially find work at a lower skill and pay level than they would like or move to parts of the country where more graduate opportunities exist.  



Mismatch between skills supply and demand

There is a mismatch between people’s skills, qualifications and job ambitions (labour supply) and the skills and qualifications required for jobs in the local labour market (labour demand).

Stockton-on-Tees has both an increasing number of job vacancies and a higher than average number of claimants of unemployment benefit.    

Some occupations such as carers and nurses are seeing skills shortages being intensified by factors such as an ageing population and replacement demand.  The increasing use of technology is resulting in a growing demand for people with skills and qualifications in Engineering and ICT.

What people are studying, the qualifications they hold and the jobs they are seeking are not aligned to the jobs on offer. The level of skills and qualifications required in the local labour market are forecast to increase, which is likely to impact these issues further.



Lack of Apprenticeship Opportunities and awareness of Vocational Routeways

Vocational routeways, such as apprenticeships, are aligned to the labour market and should help to rectify any mismatches that exist.  There are proven benefits to an individual’s health and wellbeing that can result from apprenticeship opportunities, whilst also giving an individual employment status. 

Anecdotal evidence suggests that improvements could be made in the awareness and availability of apprenticeship opportunities and the different pathways that could exist to an apprenticeship opportunity, particularly advanced and higher level ones. 


Last updated: 14/03/18

7. Evidence base

Issue number

1 = highest priority


1 & 4


The Gatsby Foundation

Title incl. web link

Good Career Guidance


Good career guidance is critical if young people are to raise their aspirations and capitalise on the opportunities available to them. In 2013 the Gatsby Foundation commissioned Sir John Holman to research what pragmatic actions could improve career guidance in England and subsequently he developed the Good Career Guidance Benchmarks.


Joseph Rowntree Foundation

Title incl. web link

UK poverty: Causes, costs and solutions


Report that explains what poverty is and what causes it, highlights trends and projections in UK poverty, and makes recommendations for tackling:

  • the high costs driving poverty, including housing
  • poverty in childhood
  • poverty in working age
  • poverty in later life
  • poverty for people with complex needs


Association for Public Sector Excellence

Title incl. web link

Work it out - Creating Local Systems of Employability Support


Research paper with ideas about how local Councils can lead on the employability agenda.

“By taking a strategic oversight on delivering employability support Councils can use their capacity and leadership of place to push an employment agenda. 

They can also provide capacity and flexibility to ensure no one is left behind. In doing so the opportunities for financial savings and boosting local economies is economically sound. The centralisation of savings on benefits, which simply revert to the DWP, is both crude and inefficient as measure of success. Councils will and should take a much longer term view of how employment will provide real savings to the public purse in the local area.”


House of Commons Library

Title incl. web link

People with Disabilities in Employment


This note summarises the key statistics available on disabled people in employment in the UK.


Department for Work and Pensions, Department of Health, The Rt Hon David Gauke MP, and The Rt Hon Jeremy Hunt MP

Title incl. web link

Improving lives: the future of work, health and disability



This paper sets out plans to transform employment prospects for disabled people and those with long term health conditions over the next 10 years.


Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research

Title incl. web link

The real level of unemployment 2017



A report challenging the view that the UK economy is operating at or close to full employment. It estimates that in 2017 the ‘real level of unemployment’ across Britain as a whole is nearly 2.3 million.



World Health Organisation

Title incl. web link

Neurological Disorders : Public Health Challenges



The book provides the public health perspective for the common neurological disorders - dementia, epilepsy, headache disorders, multiple sclerosis, neuro-infections, neurological disorders associated with malnutrition, pain associated with neurological disorders, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and traumatic brain injuries - and presents fresh and updated estimates and predictions of the global burden borne by them. It provides information and advice on public health interventions that may be applied to reduce the occurrence and consequences of neurological disorders. It offers health professionals and planners the opportunity to assess the burden caused by these disorders in their country and to take appropriate action.


Shaw Trust

Title incl. web link

Stepping up: Bridging local disability

employment gaps http://www.employabilityinscotland.com/news-events/latest-news/august-2014/report-stepping-up-bridging-local-disability-employment-gaps/


Report showing how local social enterprises can provide ‘stepping stone’ employment

opportunities potentially playing a central

role in achieving the aim of improving employment prospects of people with disabilities, health problems and impairments.


Campaign for Learning / NCFE

Title incl. web link

Mending the Gap :  Are the needs of 16-18 year olds being met


As it has been a decade since initial announcements of the Raising of the Participation Age (RPA) legislation, and 16–18 year olds still face multiple challenges after Key Stage 4.  The research provides a comprehensive review of both the size of this cohort, and those not captured by existing measures, shows that we have an even greater challenge ahead to support these learners to employment or further education and training.


British Medical Journal 2017

Title incl. web link

Epidemiology of Children with Head Injury: a national head injury http://adc.bmj.com/content/101/6/527


The data described highlight priorities for targeted age-specific head injury prevention and have the potential to provide a baseline to evaluate the effects of regional trauma networks (2012) and National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) head injury guidelines (2014), which were revised after the study was completed.





Joseph Rowntree Foundation

Title incl. web link

How city leaders can use the Industrial Strategy to create more and better jobs https://www.jrf.org.uk/blog/city-leaders-use-industrial-strategy-create-more-better-jobs


The JRF research looked at innovative practice from cities around the world where local leaders have prioritised creating more and better jobs.


What Works Centre for Local Economic Growth

Title incl. web link

Toolkit: Responding to major job losses


When faced with major job losses in a single area, how can local policy makers best support those left out of work?


Social Mobility Commission

Title incl. web link

Chapter 5 – State of the Nation 2017


This report assesses the progress that Great Britain has made towards improving social mobility.

It puts the Social Mobility Index at the heart of the report and ranks all English Local Authorities into hotspots and coldspots, using a range of 16 indicators for every life stage from the early years through to working lives.


Joseph Rowntree Foundation

Title incl. web link

Maximising the local impact of anchor institutions: a case study of Leeds City Region https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/maximising-local-impact-anchor-institutions-case-study-leeds-city-region


This report looks at anchor institutions in Leeds City Region, examining how the impact of these big spenders can be maximised for the region as a whole.


Centre for Local Economic Strategies

Title incl. web link

Creating a good local economy: the role of anchor institutions https://cles.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Anchor-institutions.pdf


Over the last eighteen months, the Centre for Local Economic Strategies (CLES) working in partnership with Preston City Council have been working on improving and developing a good local economy.

The action research work has sought to engage with and influence anchor institutions based in a local authority boundary so that their behaviour and activities bring maximum benefit for the local economy and create wealth for the local community.




Wilfried Martens Centre European Studies

Title incl. web link

Skills Mismatch 3 http://www.skillsmismatch.thinkyoung.eu/2016


The observation that countries with low youth unemployment rates are those where Vocational Education and Training (VET) and apprenticeship programmes are more developed is driving the debate on effective education policies, and puts an emphasis on VET and apprenticeships as key instruments in tackling youth unemployment. 

Apprenticeships are believed to promote a smoother transition from school to work for young people, giving them a good start to their working careers. 

To test these claims, this ThinkYoung and Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies report investigates young people’s perceptions on the effective provision of VET schemes in 6 major European countries (UK, Spain, Germany, Austria, France and Italy) and their role in addressing youth unemployment. 

The report sheds light on young people’s initial perception and attractiveness of VET, the determinants of choosing a VET based educational path, the experience and perceived quality of VET instruction, as well as options for skills transferability and sector mobility.  

This is done through a comparison of the findings from those who graduate from such programmes, and those pursuing a general education track. 


What works centre for Local Economic Growth

Title incl. web link

Employment Training Toolkit


A set of policy design guides to help policy makers make informed decisions when developing employment training policy. Each policy design guide covers a specific aspect of programme delivery so should not necessarily be directly compared. They are intended to provide an understanding of:

  • how much is known about effectiveness, in comparison to costs
  • what you should consider if you are thinking about using a particular approach



What works centre for Local Economic Growth

Title incl. web link

Apprenticeships Toolkit



A set of policy design guides to help policy makers to make informed decisions when developing apprenticeships programmes.

There are design guides for mentoring, financial incentives and pre-apprenticeships.

Each policy design guide covers a specific aspect of programme delivery so should not necessarily be directly compared. They are intended to help you understand:

  • how much is known about effectiveness, in comparison to costs
  • what you should consider if you are thinking about using a particular approach


1, 3 & 4




The Institute for Public Policy Research

Title incl. web link

Tipping the Balance – Maximising the North East as a skills hub


Report considers the challenges facing the region in terms of skills, education and training, and makes practical recommendations for how these can be overcome.




What works centre for Local Economic Growth

Title incl. web link

Apprenticeships Toolkit



A set of policy design guides to help policy makers to make informed decisions when developing apprenticeship programmes.

There are design guides for mentoring, financial incentives and pre-apprenticeships.

Each policy design guide covers a specific aspect of programme delivery so should not necessarily be directly compared. They are intended to help you understand:

  • how much is known about effectiveness, in comparison to costs
  • what you should consider if you are thinking about using a particular approach



The Royal Society of Arts

Title incl. web link

Good Work – The Taylor Review of Modern Working Practices


The work of this Review is based on a single overriding ambition: All work in the UK economy should be fair and decent with realistic scope for development and fulfilment.


Last updated: 24/05/18

8. What is being done and why?


ESFA - Study Programme – Implemented by a variety of training providers

Study programmes are designed for those aged 16-19 to provide students with a structured and challenging individualised learning programme that supports their development and progression in line with their future career plans.

All study programmes should:

  • Include one or more academic, applied or vocational qualification that stretches the student and links clearly to training, employment or higher education, or work preparation and an extended work placement for those students who are not ready for study at Level 2, or who are on a Traineeship;
  • Require students who do not have GCSE A*-C in Maths or English to work towards the achievement of these qualifications;
  • Allow for meaningful work experience (related to the vocational area) and/or other non--qualification activity to develop students’ personal skills and/or prepare them for employment, training or higher/further education.

All Study Programmes should focus on maximising progression to the next stage of education, employment or an apprenticeship and usually last up to 26 weeks, but can be more or less depending on the young persons’ ability.

ESFA - 16-19 Bursary Fund – implemented by various training providers

  • Under-19 at the start of the academic year that the bursary is for;
  • Studying at school or college, or on an unpaid training course.

Two Funds:

Vulnerable student bursary

Up to £1,200 if at least one of the following applies:

  • In or recently left Local Authority care;
  • In receipt of Income Support or Universal Credit;
  • Disabled and receiving Employment Support Allowance or Universal Credit,
  • Receiving Disability Living Allowance (DLA) or Personal Independence Payment (PIP).

Discretionary Bursary

Education and training providers set their own criteria for discretionary bursaries.

ESFA - Traineeships   - Implemented by various training providers

Designed to help young people aged 16 to 24 who want to get an apprenticeship or job, but don’t yet have the appropriate skills or experience. Traineeships provide the essential work preparation training, English, Maths and work experience needed to secure an apprenticeship or employment.

ESFA - Apprenticeships – Implemented by various training providers
Apprenticeships combine practical training in a job with study for all age groups from 16+. The apprentices are employed by the business and will receive a wage.  Apprentices:

  • Work alongside experienced staff;
  • Gain job-specific skills;
  • Earn a wage and get holiday pay;
  • Study towards a related qualification (usually one day a week).

ESFA - Additional Support for Apprenticeships – Implemented by various training providers

Provides up to £1,000 to any business employing an apprentice (£500 paid after 90 days, £500 paid after 52 weeks).  For those aged 16-18 or 19-24 if a care leaver.

DWP - New Enterprise Allowance (NEA) – Implemented by Jobcentre Plus

  • For those aged 16+;
  • Allowance of £1,274 paid over 26 weeks and support from a business mentor;
  • For people who are in receipt of JSA/ESA/IS and have a business idea.

CLG - Troubled Families – Implemented by Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council’s Youth Direction Service

For households who:

  • Are involved in crime and anti-social behaviour;
  • Have children not in school;
  • Have an adult on out of work benefits;
  • Cause high costs to the public purse.

ESFA - Family Learning – Implemented by Stockton--on--Tees Borough Council’s Learning and Skills Service

  • Range of courses and sometimes provision of crèche facilities.
  • Free for parents and carers of children in any year group.

Health England - Individual Placement and Support (IPS)

Supports people aged 18+ with a chronic mental health condition into employment. It involves:

  • Intensive, individual support;
  • A rapid job search followed by placement in paid employment;
  • Time-unlimited in-work support for both the employee and the employer.

DWP - Work Programme

The Work Programme was launched in 2011 as part of the Welfare to Work Reforms. It is delivered in the North East by Ingeous and Avanta.  It is a mandatory programme targeted at those aged 18+ (long-term unemployed) and those with health conditions.  Participants can be supported for up to two years.

Referrals no longer being taken since March 2017, but existing participants will be supported until March 2019.

DWP - Work Programme – Flexible Work Fund

DWP to address barriers to work - travel, training and clothing for interviews.

DWP - Work and Health Programme

A new Work and Health Programme replacing the Work Programme and Work Choice which will provide specialist support for the long-term unemployed and on a voluntary basis for claimants with health conditions and disabilities.  Targeted at those aged 18+ (long-term unemployed (2 years+) and those with health conditions (day 1 eligibility).

DWP - Work Experience – Implemented by Jobcentre Plus

Work experience is available to young people who are aged 16 to 24 years old and, in some cases, people aged 25+ who don’t have any recent work history.

Work experience will enable young, unemployed people to volunteer for placements lasting between two and four weeks, and between 25-30 hours per week, but this can be less by arrangement.

Participants should be provided with a reference at the end of the placement.

If in receipt of benefits DWP will continue to pay participants’ benefits and if required also cover the costs of travel and childcare. Hosts are not expected to pay participants as doing so might affect their benefit entitlement.

DWP - Work Trials – Implemented by Jobcentre Plus

Work Trials are a try before you employ’ scheme. Employers can trial somebody who is on unemployment benefits without having to pay them.

UK Government - Fit for Work – Implemented by Health Management Ltd 

Offers free, expert and impartial advice to anyone looking for help with issues around health and work.

UK Government – Disability Confident – Implemented by DWP

Disability Confident is a scheme that is designed to help employers recruit and retain disabled people and people with health conditions for their skills and talent.


ESF EU - Youth Employment Initiative (YEI) – Implemented by Stockton--on--Tees Borough Council’s Youth Direction Service

The aim of the YEI is to support young people aged 15 to 29 years old who are unemployed and/or not in education, employment or training to move closer to the labour market and ultimately into sustained employment. The programme will engage with over 6,500 young people across the Tees Valley until July 2018.  The three elements of the funding include:

  • Transition Education & Employment Mentoring (TEEMs);
  • Personalised Education, Employment and Enterprise Pathways (PEEEPs);
  • Sector Routeways.

Two contracts awarded:

1.    New College Durham was successful in securing £2.8m for the TEEMs contract and an element of PEEEPs, branded as 'Defining Futures' and 'Young Ambition'. They are working in partnership with the Thirteen Group, Coast & Country and North Star Housing and other providers.

2.    The five Tees Valley LAs led by Hartlepool Borough Council secured £19.29m for PEEEPs and Sector Routeways working in partnership with over 20 organisations from the public, private and VCSE sectors.

ESF - Skills Support for the Unemployed – Implemented by Middlesbrough College and People Plus

  • Career coaching, independent local information, advice and guidance, training and workshops. 
  • A wide range of qualifications linked to needs in the local labour market.
  • Support with Maths, English and ICT.
  • Help with job search and applications, CV development and interview preparation.
  • Links to work placements and introduction to local employers.
  • Help securing an apprenticeship or further education.
  • Some cases of financial support.

ESF - Tees Valley Routes to Enterprise – Implemented by People Plus

A programme delivered by People Plus for those that are unemployed and aged 25+ - FreshStart: Steps to Self-Employment.  Participants in the programme should be:

  • Currently claiming Job Seekers Allowance (JSA)
  • Recently started claiming Employment and Support Allowance (ESA)
  • Newly unemployed and not yet claiming any benefit.

The programmes provides specialist self-employment career coaching; Independent local information, advice and guidance; business start--up training and workshops; help with business development; help with testing a business idea; guidance on applying for financial support; help to get a business launched.

In some cases participants can be offered additional support towards the cost of attending interviews, safety equipment or obtaining important licences.

ESF - ESOL – Implemented by  Middlesbrough College and Stockton Borough Council’s Learning and Skills

The Prime provider for ESOL (English for Speakers of a Foreign Language) is Middlesbrough College. 

Stockton Borough Council’s Learning and Skills Service deliver employability to ESOL learners until 31st July 2018.

ESF - CEIAG (Additional) – Implemented by People Plus

A programme delivered by People Plus for those that are unemployed and aged 25+ - FreshStart: Careers Guidance. Participants in the programme should be:

  • Currently claiming Job Seekers Allowance (JSA)
  • Recently started claiming Employment and Support Allowance (ESA)
  • Newly unemployed and not yet claiming any benefit

The programme provides: bespoke 1-2-1 career advice; independent information, advice and guidance; individually tailored learning plan; direct referral to training and career services. Signposting to our network of partners for additional support including: sector specific information sessions; mock interviews with real employers; workplace taster days; apprenticeships; workshops to promote opportunities; access to online learner resources.

ESF – Sector-led Apprenticeship Routeways – Implemented by Middlesbrough College

Targeted at the 16+ age group.

ESF / Lottery – Building Better Opportunities – Step Forward Tees Valley - Implemented by Northern Inclusion Consortium (NICS)

Targeted at 29+ (unemployed / Inactive) and have the right to live and work in the UK. The project focuses on people who are most at risk of social exclusion. It provides holistic and bespoke support for participants to increase their employability and improve their prospects for employment. there are three key themes:

i)          Removing health & wellbeing barriers to employment;

ii)          Steps towards employment; and

iii)         Financial/digital inclusion.

ESF – Skills Support for the Workforce – Implemented by Calderdale College

Supports eligible businesses (SMEs and those that meet the TVCA SEP priorities) to develop and implement bespoke funded training plans to up--skill their 19+ workforce to meet immediate and long--term skill needs.

ESF – Skills Support for Redundancy – Implemented by New College Durham

The purpose of this provision is to ensure that capacity is in place to respond to redundancies and the employment implications of local economic conditions for individuals aged 19+ who are:

  • Under consultation or notice of redundancy;
  • Have been notified by their employer that they are likely to be directly affected by downsizing or company closure locally;
  • Have recently been made unemployed.


Stockton Public Health – Stockton Youth Employment Fund – Implemented by Stockton Borough Council

A grant of up to £1,000 payable to local businesses to create apprenticeship opportunities for residents of Stockton-on-Tees aged 16-24.

Tees Valley Combined Authority – Apprenticeship Support for Employers – Implemented by Tees Valley Combined Authority

There are two separate and distinct offers of grant which employers can apply for provided that their apprentice is aged 19+ and following a recognised Apprenticeship Standard or Framework and all other eligibility criteria are met.  Businesses cannot be eligible for both Grant A and Grant B.

Grant A:

A grant of £2,500 per apprentice for small to medium businesses (under 250 employees) from priority sectors who employ an apprentice aged 19+ working towards a recognised sector specific qualification from the Apprenticeship Standards or Frameworks (up to a maximum of three apprentices per year).


Grant B:

An initial grant of £500 per apprentice for small businesses (under 50 employees) who employ an apprentice aged 19--24.  In order to encourage high quality and sustainable employment for the apprentice and additional £500 will be paid if the apprentice continues to be in employment more than 13 months after the date of starting their apprenticeship (up to a maximum of three apprentices per year).

Stockton Borough Council Local CEIAG -  Implemented by Youth Direction Service

Service provided to young people aged 11-18.

  • Contracts with 10 of the 12 schools;
  • Circa 15% of each age cohort;
  • Personality Profile Tools;
  • Careers Interviews and guidance.
  • Schools have to pay for this Service.

Stockton Borough Council - Local CEIAG - Implemented by Learning and Skills Service

IAG for learners aged 16+ (courses and training programmes, progression routes, financial help for study).

ESFA - Access to Work -- Implemented by Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council’s Learning and Skills Service

A range of courses to increase employability. 16+ learners referred to pre-employment programmes from the Government Work Programme, if currently unemployed or on a low income (less than £330 per month).

ESFA - Sector Based Work Academy - Implemented by Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council’s Learning and Skills Service

Academies run between 4 and 6 weeks and offer a mix of qualifications and employer specific training for unemployed people aged 19+.  Developed with employers with the aim of filling vacancies and creating apprenticeship opportunities.

SBC - Enterprise Education for Children & Young People – Implemented by Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council, Economic Growth and Development Services

Workshops and programmes delivered to children and young people aged 4 to 25 years in schools, colleges and youth organisations exploring enterprise and innovation in the classroom. Young people will also develop employability skills, such as team work, problem solving and creativity.

SBC - Young People in Enterprise - Implemented by Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council, Economic Growth and Development Services

Children and young people aged 11 to 25 years have access to self-employment test-trading opportunities through showcasing their products or services on market stalls, pop-up shops or in the Fountain Shopping Mall. They can access further support from Stockton Borough Council and partners to start up a business. A holistic approach is offered by working with partners to ensure young people can make informed enterprising choices.

Stockton Borough Council -  Targeted Youth Support – Implemented by Youth Direction Service

A team of youth workers, working with targeted and vulnerable groups, involves street-based work within local communities and ‘hot spot’ areas, working with the police and anti-social behaviour teams to work with young people aged 14-19.

Stockton Borough Council – Youth Preventions – Implemented by Youth Direction Service

Provides an early intervention service for young people who are at risk of offending, anti-social behaviour or school exclusion. The service targets young people aged 8-17 years.

DWP – Routes to Work (Section 31 Grant) – Implemented by the 5 Tees Valley Local Authorities

A DWP pilot in six LEP areas. It will provide a holistic wrap--around service to individuals who are unemployed and are furthest from the labour market. It will target people aged 30+, who are unemployed or inactive in the labour market and have multiple barriers to securing employment. It will be delivered across the Tees Valley by the five LAs for a period of three years.

Middlesbrough and Teesside Philanthropic Foundation – Progress to Work – Implemented by Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council, Economic Growth Service

A pilot project developed to support the employment of 16 Looked After Children (LAC) aged 16-25 in Stockton-on-Tees.  The grant is available to employers to create apprenticeships for LAC to help with wages, training, PPE etc. The level of grant depends on the salary of the young person. Stockton Borough Council BC EGDS lead.

Teesside University – Knowledge Exchange Internships – Implemented by Teesside University

An internship’s salary is capped at £24,000 and equipment and training & development costs can be included.  The Knowledge Exchange Internships give Tees Valley small and medium enterprises a unique chance to engage with expertise from Teesside University and specialist experts, part funded by the European Regional Development Fund.

A talented graduate mentored by a University specialist or industry expert with relevant expertise drives forward a project for the business. This combination of fresh thinking and hugely valuable experience and expertise can bring cutting-edge benefits to the business. Knowledge Exchange Internships are flexible lasting from 6 to 12 months according to the business’ needs.

Teesside University – Graduate Placements – Implemented by Teesside University

A business can recruit a capable graduate to take on a new role in a business to help contribute to the business’ innovative growth and development. The placement is part funded by the European Regional Development Fund for 6 months.  With flexible start dates this additional talent may help you to accelerate ideas to growth opportunities. A 50% salary subsidy is available to a maximum of £4,500 over the 6 month period.

Teesside University – January to March Internships – Implemented by Teesside University

The University will provide a 12 week placements for graduates who have recently qualified, which will provide support to SME’s in Tees Valley who have a specific task that needs completing, whilst giving valuable work experience to students. 

NHS England  - Project Choice – Implemented by NHS England

Provides supported internships in the North Tees & Hartlepool NHS Trust Hospitals to young people aged 16--24 with learning disabilities and difficulties (LDD).  Stockton Borough Council’s Learning and Skills Service are contracted to deliver English and Maths to these young people as part of this project. 

Home Office – Controlling Migration Fund – Implemented by Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council’s Learning and Skills Service

Funded places for all ages on English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) provision until 31st July 2019.

Public Health – FirstSTEPs – Implemented by Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council’s STEPs team

Early intervention and prevention service for those aged 18+ that endeavours to prevent people reaching high level need.

The Service encourages and provides healthy life choices, ensures better access to health services, and supports people to access employment opportunities and community activities.

Public Health - Better Health at work awards – Implemented by Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council - Various levels of a healthy workplace voluntary scheme.

Volunteering – Implemented by various organisations. 


Last updated: 14/03/18

9. What needs are unmet?

Issue number

1 = highest priority

Unmet need


The number and variety of opportunities to provide training and work experience for people with complex needs is often limited or not flexible enough to take into account the barriers people face when engaging with support.


The availability of sustainable jobs and opportunities for workplace learning, such as apprenticeships, internships etc. are limited and there is potential for more provision to be made available.

Those residents that find it hard to gain or remain in employment, or cannot easily access the opportunities available.


Not every young person has access to high quality careers, employment, information, advice and guidance (CEIAG), as well as a series of valuable encounters with employers from Year 7 onwards.

There are limited graduate opportunities in the local labour market and as a result some residents move to different parts of the country for employment after leaving university.

People taking up employment that requires lower level skills or qualifications than they possess. 

Insufficient graduate opportunities for on##the##job training or work experience either during or after leaving university.

People who are working fewer hours and on lower incomes than they would like, or are employed on zero hours contracts despite wanting more sustainable employment are not being fully supported to increase their hours or progress into higher paid work.



People who would benefit from an apprenticeship opportunity but do not have access to one due to either a lack of awareness or a lack of apprenticeship vacancies.

People who are not yet ready for an apprenticeship may require some form of pre##apprenticeship activity or support, such as work experience.  However, as it is uncoordinated, not well understood and difficult to navigate, some people may not receive the referral or advice they most need.


Last updated: 14/03/18

10. What needs to be done and why?

Issue number

1 = highest priority

What needs to be done?



Anchor institutions such as the local authority, hospitals, universities, registered providers of housing and large private sector organisations should lead by example and create a range of employment related opportunities and flexible jobs to enable under##represented groups and those furthest from the labour market to access employment. This could include, for example, job carving, supported internships, supported employment, Intermediate Labour Market (ILM) etc.  Anchor institutions should also support their supply chain to do similar.

Opportunities to gain work experience or develop various skills or qualifications can be limited and not flexible enough to meet the needs of people with numerous and complex issues.


Public sector organisations and key employers can directly deliver more inclusive growth through their own employment and procurement and commissioning practices.

Organisations should maximise training and employment opportunities through the active use of the Social Value Act in public procurement and commissioning.

Provide support to keep people in employment, especially those with health and/or disability issues.

The volume and range of opportunities to provide training, work experience, and employment opportunities for people with complex needs is often limited or not flexible enough to take into account the barriers people face.

It is becoming increasing relevant and important for organisations and businesses to evidence the social, economic and environmental benefits they provide as part of their delivery activities.


An improved offer of impartial CEIAG is required with opportunities to gain experience of work and several meaningful encounters with business.

Key stakeholders should be encouraged to become Enterprise Advisers as part of the Tees Valley Careers and Enterprise Company (CEC) work with schools and colleges to promote their sector and the opportunities available.

Evidence suggests that a young person who has four or more encounters with an employer is 86% less likely to be unemployed or NEET and can earn up to 18% more during their career.





More apprenticeship opportunities should be created:

Encourage Apprenticeship Levy paying employers to maximise their levy contribution by up##skilling the existing workforce to be more productive and creating new apprenticeship positions through workforce succession planning.

Encourage non##levy paying employers to recruit apprentices by offering a package of support, including financial.

There are clear health and wellbeing benefits to people accessing apprenticeship opportunities.

There is a clear economic benefits as employers benefit from increased productivity and attracting talent. 

Apprenticeships also help to address the mismatch in the local labour market.


Last updated: 14/03/18

11. What additional needs assessment is required?

  • Until such a time as the other JSNA topics that this Assessment is closely linked to can be considered this Assessment cannot be effectively completed.
  • The analysis has identified that the range of support (including financial) available to help people gain and remain in employment is substantial, but it is uncoordinated, not well understood and difficult to navigate.
  • To fully understand where there may be gaps in provision a detailed assessment of this is needed, and by what means this could be disseminated to a range of stakeholders, e.g. through training, a presentation or a toolkit; bringing providers together to share information via a networking event or workshop etc. 
  • Identify the barriers that exist and the solutions required by different geographies and population groups in the Borough.


Last updated: 14/03/18

12. References


Last updated: 14/03/18

13. Key contact

Name: Viv Lattimer

Job title: Economic Strategy Officer

Organisation: Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council

Phone number: 01642 527025

Contributor/s: Roland Todd, Andy Burge


Last updated: 14/03/18

Email: vivian.lattimer@stockton.gov.uk