Who is at risk and why?
Various factors influence the demand for transport as shown below.
Factors that affect transport demand (Litman, 2012):
Older (over 65-year-olds) and younger (18 to 20-year-olds) drivers are at particular risk of serious and fatal injuries on the roads.
Children are becoming less physically fit as they age.
A higher percentage of boys than girls (aged 2-15 years) meet the Government’s recommendations for physical activity.
There is no current evidence suggesting gender plays a significant role in determining the prevalence of obesity in adults. However, the NCMP shows that boys are significantly more likely to be obese than girls.
Children in the 10% most deprived wards in England are more than three times as likely to be pedestrian casualties as those in the 10% most affluent wards.
Although the most deprived areas produce the lowest levels of pollution, they are actually exposed to the highest levels of air pollution.
More people are active in households with higher income.
The distribution of overweight and obesity has a significant social gradient, with prevalence among people who are socially and economically deprived.
Disabled people are most likely to suffer an injury due to a trip or fall and therefore, will require longer periods of medical care than other groups.
Children and young people with a disability take part in physical activity and sport less frequently and their experiences are less positive than their non-disabled peers (Sport Scotland, 2006).
Injury rates are higher in black children when compared to their white and Asian peers.
People from minority ethnic groups tend to be less active compared to their white peers (The Information Centre, 2006).
People living within close proximity of motorised traffic can be affected as traffic vibration and noise cause stress, while congestion, traffic speeds and inconsiderate driving are a source of annoyance and fear for many.
Nationally in 2011, the majority (61%) of road collision related fatalities occurred on rural roads (40% on rural A roads and 21% on other rural roads).
While the evidence is varied, studies tend to show that cyclists and pedestrians are exposed to lower fine particulate matter and carbon dioxide concentrations when compared to those inside vehicles. The proximity to the pollution source(s) has a significant impact on the level of exposure levels experienced.
Nationally, whilst deaths peaked during the evening rush hour (and potentially dark nights), with a peak of 173 between 18:00 and 19:00 there were fatalities throughout the whole day.
Friday, Saturday and Sunday accounts for 50% of all deaths. Saturday and Sunday show evening peaks related to the periods following likely pub drinking and parties. On Sunday there are peaks following likely lunchtime drinking.